In the present work the author explores the theology of Aphrahat, the first Father of the Syriac Church, on the covenant as basic to a proper understanding of the Church but in particular of the Covenanters, a community of celibate ascetics, of which Aphrahat was a bishop member. His understanding of pastoral ministry is studied, especially the role of Peter from the standpoint of typology, which can advance the ecumenical understanding of primacy in the Church. ————————————————————– ————————————————————– The author is emeritus professor of the Pontifical Oriental Institute, Rome, where he has taught canon law, theology of law and philosophy of law. He has published several works in the series Kanonika, of which he was editor from the beginning till 2012. His recent publications include: Quest for the Historical Thomas Apostle of India: A Re-reading of the Evidence, Bangalore: Theological Publications in India, 2008; “The Council in Trullo Revisited: Ecumenism and the Canon of the Councils,” Theological Studies 71 (2010) 651-676; “Christian Origins in India According to the Alexandrian Tradition,” OCP 77 (2011) 399-422; “Typology of Peter in the Symbolic Theology of Aphrahat,” OCP 80 (2014) 291-328. His latest book is Renewal of Life and Law: An Indian Contribution (Dharmaram Canonical Studies, 10), Dharmaram Publications, Bangalore, 2015.